单片机_英文参考文献1

Structure and function of the MCS-51 series

Structure and function of the MCS-51 series one-chip computer MCS-51 is a name of a piece of one-chip computer series which Intel Company produces. This company introduced 8 top-grade one-chip computers of MCS-51 series in 1980 after introducing 8 one-chip computers of MCS-48 series in 1976. It belong to a lot of kinds this line of one-chip computer the chips have,such as 8051, 8031, 8751, 80C51BH, 80C31BH,etc., their basic composition, basic performance and instruction system are all the same. 8051 daily representatives- 51 serial one-chip computers .

An one-chip computer system is made up of several following parts: ( 1) One microprocessor of 8 (CPU). ( 2) At slice data memory RAM (128B/256B),it use not depositting not can reading /data that write, such as result not middle of operation, final result and data wanted to show, etc. ( 3) Procedure memory ROM/EPROM (4KB/8KB ), is used to preserve the procedure , some initial data and form in slice. But does not take ROM/EPROM within some one-chip computers, such as 8031 , 8032, 80C ,etc.. ( 4) Four 8 run side by side I/O interface P0 four P3, each mouth can use as introduction , may use as exporting too. ( 5) Two timer / counter, each timer / counter may set up and count in the way, used to count to the external incident, can set up into a timing way too, and can according to count or result of timing realize the control of the computer. ( 6) Five cut off cutting off the control system of the source . ( 7) One all duplexing serial I/O mouth of UART (universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) ), is it realize one-chip computer or one-chip computer and serial communication of computer to use for. ( 8) Stretch oscillator and clock produce circuit, quartz crystal finely tune electric capacity need outer. Allow oscillation frequency as 12 megahertas now at most. Every the above-mentioned part was joined through the inside data

bus .Among them, CPU is a core of the one-chip computer, it is the control of the computer and command centre, made up of such parts as arithmetic unit and controller , etc.. The arithmetic unit can carry on 8 persons of arithmetic operation and unit ALU of logic operation while including one, the 1 storing device temporarilies of 8, storing device 2 temporarily, 8s accumulation device ACC, register B and procedure state register PSW, etc. Person who accumulate ACC count by 2 input ends entered of checking etc. temporarily as one operation often, come from person who store 1 operation is it is it make operation to go on to count temporarily , operation result and loopback ACC with another one. In addition, ACC is often regarded as the transfer station of data transmission on 8051 inside . The same as general microprocessor, it is the busiest register. Help remembering that agreeing with A expresses in the order. The controller includes the procedure counter , the order is depositted, the order decipher, the oscillator and timing circuit, etc. The procedure counter is made up of counter of 8 for two, amounts to 16. It is a byte address counter of the procedure in fact, the content is the next IA that will carried out in PC. The content which changes it can change the direction that the procedure carries out . Shake the circuit in 8051 one-chip computers, only need outer quartz crystal and frequency to finely tune the electric capacity, its frequency range is its 12MHZ of

1.2MHZ. This pulse signal, as 8051 basic beats of working, namely the minimum unit of time. 8051 is the same as other computers, the work in harmony under the control of the basic beat, just like an orchestra according to the beat play that is commanded.

There are ROM (procedure memory , can only read ) and RAM in 8051 slices (data memory, can is it can write ) two to read, they have each independent memory address space, dispose way to be the same with general memory of computer. Procedure 8051 memory and 8751 slice procedure memory capacity 4KB, address begin from 0000H, used for

preserving the procedure and form constant. Data 8051- 8751 8031 of memory data memory 128B, address false 00FH, use for middle result to deposit operation, the data are stored temporarily and the data are buffered etc.. In RAM of this 128B, there is unit of 32 byteses that can be appointed as the job register, this and general microprocessor is different, 8051 slice RAM and job register rank one formation the same to arrange the location. It is not very the same that the memory of MCS-51 series one-chip computer and general computer disposes the way in addition. General computer for first address space, ROM and RAM can arrange in different space within the range of this address at will, namely the addresses of ROM and RAM, with distributing different address space in a formation. While visiting the memory, corresponding and only an address Memory unit, can ROM, it can be RAM too, and by visiting the order similarly. This kind of memory structure is called the structure of Princeton. 8051 memories are divided into procedure memory space and data memory space on the physics structure, there are four memory spaces in all: The procedure stores in one and data memory space outside data memory and one in procedure memory space and one outside one, the structure forms of this kind of procedure device and data memory separated form data memory, called Harvard structure. But use the angle from users, 8051 memory address space is divided into three kinds: (1) In the slice, arrange blocks of FFFFH , 0000H of location , in unison outside the slice (use 16 addresses). (2) The data memory address space outside one of 64KB, the address is arranged from 0000H 64KB FFFFH (with 16 addresses ) too to the location. (3) Data memory address space of 256B (use 8 addresses). Three above-mentioned memory space addresses overlap, for distinguishing and designing the order symbol of different data transmission in the instruction system of 8051: CPU visit slice, ROM order spend MOVC , visit block RAM order uses MOVX outside the slice, RAM order uses MOV to visit in slice.

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